• 2019-07
  • 2019-08
  • 2019-09
  • 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • 2021-03
  • br Table br Subject characteristics br


    Table 1
    Subject characteristics.
    Leukaemias, myeloproliferative diseases, and 45 (61) myelodysplastic diseases
    Lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms 8 (11) CNS and miscellaneous intracranial and 4 (5) intraspinal neoplasms
    Neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell 6 (8) Tumours 2 (3) Retinoblastoma 2 (3) Hepatic Tumours 3 (4) Soft tissue and other extraosseous sarcomas 2 (3) Germ cell tumours, trophoblastic tumours, and 1 (1) neoplasms of gonads
    Renal Tumours 1 (1) Other malignant epithelial neoplasms and
    malignant Melanomas
    a International Classification for Childhood Cancer (ICCC) definitions based on site and morphology coded according to ICD-O-3 [50].  a Significant difference between cancer group and controls P < 0.0001.
    b Significant difference between cancer group and controls P < 0.01.
    c Significant difference between cancer group and controls P < 0.05.
    d All values are mean ± SD. BMI, body mass index; BCMI, body cell mass index; FMI, fat mass index; FFMI, fat free mass index. e Cancer and 1:1 matched controls were compared by paired t-test.
    nourished subjects (1.57 ± 0.32) (p ¼ 0.01). When subjects were separated based on %FM into obese and non-obese groups, 27% were considered obese, and the obese subjects had significantly lower PAL than the non-obese groups (1.37 ± 0.16 vs 1.51 ± 0.30; p ¼ 0.03). There were no other significant differences in clinical, physical activity and dietary intake variable between the obese and non-obese groups.
    The relationship between body composition and clinical vari-ables (type of cancer, age at diagnosis, time since treatment completion, bone marrow transplant (BMT) or any radiation), physical activity (PAL and total 9004-65-3 expenditure) and energy intake (energy intake, energy intake as percent of estimated re-quirements, protein, fat and carbohydrate intake) was analysed. When adjusted for gender and age, receiving a BMT (r ¼ 0.27; p ¼ 0.02) and PAL (r ¼ 0.49; p ¼ 0.0001) were significantly corre-lated with BCMI. When significant variables were combined in regression model; gender, BMT and PAL remained significantly associated with BCMI (Table 3). Receiving a BMT (r ¼ 0.27; p ¼ 0.02) and PAL (r ¼ 0.61; p ¼ 0.0001) were also significantly correlated with FFMI. When age, gender, BMT and PAL were com-bined in regression model, all variables remained significantly associated with FFMI (Table 3). No variables were significantly associated with FMI.
    Sixty-one subjects completed the three day food diaries and results are shown in Table 4. For the average intake over the 3 days, 18% of the survivors were consuming more than 110% of their EER, while 22% of the survivors were consuming less than 75% of their EER. The percentage of children not meeting their dietary re-quirements for calcium was 61%; with a high percentage of the survivors also not meeting needs for magnesium (46%), folate (38%)
    Table 3
    Multiple regression analysis.
    Dependent Independent Variables B SE b P
    Table 4
    Mean daily dietary intake of subjects.
    Mean ± SD Percentage of subjects
    average requirements
    and iodine (38%). Sixty-seven percent of subjects had a usual intake that exceeded the upper limit for sodium. The mean macronutrient distribution of total energy intake consisted of 46% carbohydrates, 34% fat and 20% protein. When assessed against the AMDR, 38% of population had a usual intake of carbohydrate as a proportion of total energy below the lower limit, while 48% of the subjects had energy intake from fat above the upper limit. Eighty percent of survivors met protein AMDR, with 11% below and 10% above limits.
    Fifty-seven subjects completed a physical activity diary. The subjects had a mean PAL of 1.45 ± 0.19, with males (PAL ¼ 1.50 ± 0.20) having a significantly higher PAL level than females (PAL ¼ 1.39 ± 0.14) (p ¼ 0.04). The average PAL of 1.45 for this population was characteristic of a population with a sedentary or light activity lifestyle. From the respondents, 74% participated in at least 1hr of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day and participated in an average of 117 min of MVPA per day. The survivors in this study participated in more daily MVPA than re-ported for 5e18 year olds in the Australian Health Survey (117 min/ day versus 91 min/day), with only 60% of Australian children meeting recommendations in the Australian Health Survey [32]. Sixty-four percent of the survivors did not meet the recommen-dation of “no more than 2 h of screen-based entertainment” every day, with the average amount of time spent in sedentary screenebased activities being 159 min per day over the assessment period. Survivors in this study spent a longer average amount of time in sedentary screenebased activities than the Australian population (136 min/day) [32].